All trees have unique colors and hold true to these colors through the autumn season. That is not to say that each tree can exhibit several combinations of colors as well as a single major color but most trees will display the same general colors by species.
Leaf chemistry is the main reason this occurs. The green leaf color of chlorophyll in summer is replaced by the natural pigments of leaf cells in fall that include anthocyanins (red) and carotenoids (yellow and orange). As I mentioned, each tree is genetically programmed to express a particular color or colors and will always share that particular "brilliance" through its entire life.
Beartown State Park Red Maple Leaf, Photo by Steve Nix