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United States Forests - Classification of All Forests by Forest Region

American Forest Regions

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Not all forest tree species grow equally well throughout the United States. In fact, native forest trees of a species have certain biological constraints that confine them naturally to forest regions or types. These natural forest collections of tree species are called forest types.

A forest type is a classification of forest land based on the species presently forming a plurality of living trees growing in that particular forest. The United States Forest Service has developed a listing of forest cover type groups.

A complete forest type map of the United States

Major Eastern Forest Cover Groups:

White-red-jack pine forest map — Forests in which eastern white pine, red pine, or jack pine singly or in combination, comprise a plurality of the stocking. Common associates include hemlock, aspen, birch, and maple.

Spruce-fir forest map — Forests in which spruce or true firs, singly or in combination, comprise a plurality of the stocking. Common associates include white cedar , tamarack , birch , maple and hemlock .

Elm-ash-cottonwood forest map — Forests in which elms, ashes, or cottonwood, singly or in combination, comprise a plurality of the stocking. Common associates include willow, sycamore, American beech, and maples.

Loblolly-shortleaf pine forest map — Forest in which pines (except longleaf and slash pines) and eastern redcedar, singly or in combination, comprise a plurality of the stocking. Common associates include oaks , hickories, and gums.

Longleaf-slash pine forest map — Forests in which longleaf or slash pines, singly or in combination, comprise a plurality of the stocking. Common associates include other southern pines , oaks , and gums.

Oak-gum-cypress forest map — Bottomland forests in which tupelo, blackgum , sweetgum , oaks, or southern cypress, singly or in combination, comprise a plurality of the stocking except where pines comprise 25 to 49 percent, in which case the stand would be classified oak-pine. Common associates include cottonwoods, willows, ashes, elms, hackberry, and maples .

Oak-hickory forest map — Forests in which upland oaks or hickories , singly or in combination, comprise a plurality of the stocking, except where pines comprise 25 to 49 percent, in which case the stand would be classified oak-pine. Common associates include yellow-poplar, elms , maples , and black walnut.

Oak-pine forest map — Forests in which hardwoods (usually upland oaks) comprise a plurality of the stocking, but in which softwoods, except cypress, comprise 25 to 49 percent of the stocking. Common associates include gums, hickories, and yellow-poplar.

Maple-beech-birch forest map — Forests in which maple, beech, or yellow birch , singly or in combination, comprise a plurality of the stocking. Common associates include hemlock, elm, basswood, and white pine .

Aspen-birch forest map — Forests in which aspen, balsam poplar , paper birch, singly or in combination, comprise a plurality of the stocking. Common associates include maple and balsam fir .


Major Western Forest Cover Groups:

Douglas-fir forest map — Forests in which Douglas-fir comprises a plurality of the stocking. Common associates include western hemlock , western redcedar, the true firs, redwood , ponderosa pine , and larch .

Hemlock-Sitka spruce forest map —Forests in which western hemlock and/or Sitka spruce comprise a plurality of the stocking. Common associates include Douglas-fir, silver fir, and western redcedar.

link url=http://forestry.about.com/library/tree/blrdwtyp.htm] Redwood forest map — Forests in which redwood comprises a plurality of the stocking. Common associates include Douglas-fir, grand fir, and tanoak.

Ponderosa pine forest map — Forest in which ponderosa pine comprises a plurality of the stocking. Common associates include Jeffery pine, sugar pine , limber pine, Arizona pine, Apache pine, Chihuahua pine, Douglas-fir, incense-cedar, and white fir .

link url=http://forestry.about.com/library/tree/blwwptyp.htm] Western white pine forest map — Forests in which western white pine comprises a plurality of the stocking. Common associates include other western redcedar, larch, white fir, Douglas-fir, lodgepole pine , and Engelmann spruce .

Lodgepole pine forest map — Forests in which lodgepole pine comprises a plurality of the stocking. Common associates include alpine fir, western white pine, Engelmann spruce , aspen, and larch .

Larch forest map — Forests in which western larch comprise a plurality of the stocking. Common associates include Douglas-fir, grand fir , western redcedar, and western white pine .

Fir-spruce forest map — Forests in which true firs, Engelmann spruce , or blue spruce, singly or in combination, comprise a plurality of the stocking. Common associates include mountain hemlock and lodgepole pine .

Western hardwoods forest map — Forests in which aspen, red alder, or other western hardwood, singly or in combination, comprise a plurality of the stocking.

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