If you need a tree as a windbreak, plant evergreen trees on the west or north side of the house, approximately 50 feet or more from the house.
If you want a tree to enhance optimal temperatures, plant deciduous (autumn leaf-dropping) trees on the south and/or west side of the house. These tree positions tend to cool in the summer and allow sun to enter the house in the winter.
Very important to the tree planting process is planting a tree in an appropriate hardiness zone. Most nurseries suggest planting trees using a specific plant hardiness zone as a guide. U.S. Department of Agriculture's tree and plant hardiness zone map is one good guide in helping you determine a plants ability to withstand an average minimum temperature. I refer to plant hardiness zones a lot when reviewing individual trees: USDA Plant and Tree Hardiness Zone Maps by Region
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