Forestry Terms - F -
FACE -Side of a hill or mountain being logged.
-One side of a tree, log, or cant.
-Standing timber adjacent to a clear-cut area.
-Section of wood sawn and removed from a tree's base.
FALLER -One who fells trees. Also known as a feller.
FALLING WEDGE -Wedge used to throw a tree in the desired direction.
FIREBREAK - Any nonflammable barrier used to slow or stop fires. Several types of firebreaks are mineral soil barriers; barriers of green, slow-burning vegetation; and mechanically cleared areas.
FIRE DANGER -Measure of the likelihood of a forest fire, based on temperature, relative
humidity, wind force and direction, and
the dryness of the woods.
FIRE HAZARD -Condition of fuel on the ground, particularly slash.
FIRE LINE -Cleared area extending down to mineral soil that surrounds a fire to prevent the fire from reaching fresh fuels.
FIRE TRAIL -Cleared area constructed around logging slash or other fire hazards in order to prevent the spread of fire to this
FIRMWOOD -Sound or solid wood in a log suitable for either chips or solid wood products such as lumber or veneer. Burnt
wood, voids, and soft rots are not considered firmwood.
FISH HARVEST: Pounds of fish harvested by commercial and subsistence anglers, and number of fish user days spent on recreational fishing.
FISHERIES CLASSIFICATION: Water bodies and streams classed as either having a cold water or warm water fishery. This designation is dependent upon the dominate species of fish occupying the water.
- Warm water fisheries. Warm water fisheries support fish able to tolerate water temperatures above 80 degrees F. Warm water fish include such species as crappies, small and largemouth bass, sunfish, yellow perch, and catfish.
- Cold water fisheries. Cold water fisheries support fish that prefer clear, cold waters; are not tolerant of extreme temperature changes; and cannot survive for long periods with temperatures above 68 degrees F. Species such as trout, salmon, and grayling are recognized as cold water fish.
FORAGE UTILIZATION: The proportion of current year's forage production that is consumed or destroyed by grazing animals. Forage is all browse and herbage that is available and acceptable to grazing animals.
FORB: Herbaceous plant other than those in the Gramineae (true grasses), Cyperaceae (sedges), and Juncaceae (rushes) families, i.e., any nongrass-like plant having little or no woody material.
FOREST -Area managed for the production of timber and other forest products or
maintained as wood vegetation for such
indirect benefits as protection of catchment areas or recreation.
FORESTATION -Establishment of a forest, naturally or artificially, on an area, whether previously forested or not .
FOREST FLOOR (Litter) AND HUMUS: The freshly cast (Oi), partly decomposed (Oe), and fully decomposed (Oa) vegetative material on the soil surface.
FOREST LAND: Land at least 10 percent stocked by trees of any size or formerly having had such tree cover and not currently built-up or developed for agricultural use. Forestland may include Grassland, Shrubland, Treeland, Wetland, and/or Barren land. Examples of forest land use are grazing, recreation, and timber production. See FOREST LAND CLASS for further breakdowns.
FOREST LAND CLASS: A classification of an area based upon its capability of producing industrial wood (i.e., all commercial roundwood products except fuelwood), its legal status concerning timber utilization, and its proximity to urban and rural development. Classes include:
- Timberland: Forest land that is producing or capable of producing in excess of 20 cubic feet per acre per year of industrial wood crops under natural conditions, that is not withdrawn from timber utilization, and is not associated with urban or rural development. Currently inaccessible and inoperable areas are included.
- Reserved Timberland: Public forest land, not associated with urban or rural development, that produces or is capable of producing in excess of 20 cubic feet per acre of industrial wood crops under natural conditions, on which statutory or administrative restrictions prohibit the harvest of trees.
- Other Forest Land: Forest land not capable of producing 20 cubic feet per acre per year of industrial wood crops under natural conditions and not associated with urban or rural development. These sites often contain tree species that are not currently utilized for industrial wood production or trees of poor form, small size, or inferior quality that are unfit for industrial products. Unproductivity may be the result of adverse site conditions such as sterile soil, dry climate, poor drainage, high elevation, and rockiness. This land may or may not be withdrawn from timber utilization.
- Urban Forest Land: Forest land closely associated with or in such proximity to urban nonforest land uses that is not likely to be managed for the production of industrial wood products on a continuing basis. Wood removed would be for land clearing, fuelwood, or aesthetic purposes. Such forest land may be associated with industrial, commercial, residential, or recreational nonforest uses. The ecological character of the forest remains intact, i.e., the understory has not been removed or altered enough to preclude forest succession or replanting. Residential subdivisions, industrial parks, golf course perimeters, airport buffer strips, and public urban parks that qualify as forest land are included.
- Developed Rural Forest Land: Forest land closely associated with or in such proximity to rural nonforest land uses that is not likely to be managed for the production of industrial wood products on a continuing basis. Wood removed would be for land clearing, fuelwood, or aesthetic purposes. Such forest land is usually associated with agricultural, recreational, or residential nonforest uses but may be associated with industrial or commercial uses as well. Examples of such nonforest uses include cropland, home sites, camping areas, and farmsteads. The ecological character of the forest remains intact, i.e., the understory has not been removed or altered enough to preclude forest succession or replanting.
FOREST MANAGEMENT - (a) Proper care and control of wooded land to maintain health, vigor, product flow, and other values (soil condition, water quality, wildlife preservation, and beauty) in order to accomplish specific objectives. (b) The practical application of scientific, economic, and social principles to forest property.
FOREST MANAGEMENT PLAN - Written guidelines for current and future management practices recommended to meet an owner's objectives.
FOREST PRACTICE -Any activity that enhances and/or recovers forest growth or harvest
yield, such as site preparation, planting, thinning, fertilization, and harvesting.
-Road construction or reconstruction within forest lands for the purpose of facilitating harvest or forest management.
-Any management of slash resulting from the harvest or improvement of tree species (17).
FOREST STEWARDSHIP PLAN - A written document listing activities that enhance or improve forest resources (wildlife, timber, soil, water, recreation, and aesthetics) on private land over a 5-year period.
FOREST STEWARDSHIP PROGRAM - A cooperative, technical-assistance program designed to encourage multiple resource management on private forestland. Emphasis is placed on preharvest planning to enhance and protect forest-based resources. Authorized under the 1990 Farm Bill, the program is based on national guidelines but is set by individual states.
FOREST TYPE - Groups of tree species commonly growing in the same stand because their environmental requirements are similar. North Carolina examples include pine and mixed hardwood; cypress, tupelo, and black gum; and oak and hickory.
FORESTRY - The science, art, and practice of managing and using trees, forests, and their associated resources for human benefit.
FORESTRY INCENTIVES PROGRAM (FIP) - A federally funded cost-sharing program of the Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service (ASCS). FIP provides payments to landowners who complete certain approved forest management practices, including site preparation, tree planting, and timber stand improvement (TSI).
FOREST RESIDUALS -Sum of wasted and unused wood in the forest, including logging residues; rough, rotten, and dead trees; and annual mortality (35).
-Unmerchantable material normally left following conventional logging operations other than whole-tree harvesting (3).
FOREST TYPE -Classification of forest land in terms of potential cubic-foot volume growth per acre at the culmination of mean annual increment (C.M.A.I.) in fully stocked natural stands.
-Classification of forest land based on the species forming a plurality of live-tree stocking. Type is determined on the basis of
species plurality of all live trees that contribute to stocking .
FUEL LOADING - A buildup of fuels, especially easily ignited, fast-burning fuels such as pinestraw.
FUEL MODEL: Mathematical descriptions of fuel properties (e.g. fuel load and fuel depth) that are used as inputs to calculations of fire danger indices and fire behavior potential.
FUEL MOISTURE: The extent to which fuel will burn is largely determined by the amount of water in the fuel. Fuel moisture is a dynamic variable controlled by seasonal, daily and immediate weather changes. Fuel moisture, expressed as a percent, is computed from the weight of contained water in fuel divided by the ovendry weight of the fuel.
FUSIFORM RUST - A disease resulting in a canker or swollen area on the limbs or trunks of pine trees from orange spores produced by infected oak leaves. Fusiform rust degrades stem quality and tree value, often leading to breakage, disfigurement, and eventual death of the tree.