Logging Terms - S -
SAFETY FACTOR: The ratio of breaking strength to a
safe working strength or loading.
SAFETY GLASS: A type of glass that will not shatter when broken.
SAIL BLOCK: A block hung inverted on the sail guy to hold the tong block in proper position.
SAW LOG: logs taken to be manufactured in lumber.
SCALER: The person who measures the diameter and length of the logs determines specie and grade, and makes deductions for footage calculations.
SCHOOL-MARM: A tree stem that branches into two or more trunks or tops.
SEGMENTS: Calculation arrived at by dividing the height (in feet) of a tree by the diameter at breast height (in feet). Used to determine whether or not a tree can be successfully wedged over against the lean.
SERVICEABLE CONDITION: A state or ability of a tool, machine, vehicle or other device to operate as it was intended by the manufacturer to operate.
SET: Combination of two fallers, or one faller and one bucker working together.
SET OR GANG: May consist of one faller who fells and bucks timber. Might be one faller and one bucker working as a team. (This term was used in "hand" falling era also; i.e., two fallers, two buckers, to form a four-man set or gang before chain saws came into use.)
SET-BACK: Occurs when a tree settles back opposite to the intended direction of fall; hazardous situation when the faller loses control of a tree.
SHALL: A requirement that is mandatory.
SHALLOW NOTCHES: An undercut that has not been sawn deeply enough into the tree.
SHEAR LOG: A log placed in a strategic location to divert passage of objects.
SHORE SKIDS: Any group of timbers spaced a short distance apart on which logs are rolled.
SHOULDER PAD: Leather, canvas or felt pad threaded throughout the suspenders on one shoulder to protect the body from contact with a saw being carried.
SIDE BIND: One of the five basic tree positions commonly encountered while bucking. A tree in a side bind situation is compressed on one side and tensioned on the other.
SIDE-BORING BACKCUT: Intentional alteration of the standard backcutting procedure to prevent loss of control of a tree and/or its barber-chairing. Side-boring is an effective technique of reducing the amount of holding wood required to fall a tree. The nose of the bar is pushed into the tree behind the face and 2" above the horizontal cut.
SIDE LEAN: One of the two natural leaning forces found in many trees. Compared to head lean, side lean is the lesser pronounced lean.
SIDE-NOTCH: Additional side saw cuts made to prevent "barber-chair" or to facilitate sawing large trees into logs.
SIDE-NOTCHING BACKCUT: Another intentional alteration of standard backcutting to prevent loss of control and/or barber-chairing. This method also reduces the amount of holding wood remaining to be cut by cutting each side prior to the final across the back severing.
SIDEWINDER: A limb or sapling that is bent under a tree that has been felled. Unintentionally cutting them is extremely dangerous. In some areas sidewinder refers to the falling of a tree in an unintended direction.
SINGLE-JACK: A faller who falls and bucks trees in an area by himself.
SIGNAL PERSON: The person designated to give signals to the machine operator.
SIT-BACK: Refers to a tree that settles back on the stump closing the kerf of the backcut. Generally a result of improper determination of the tree's lean and/or of wind.
SIWASH: The use of a natural physical object, such as a tree, to change the direction of a line rather than with a block.
SKIDDER: A machine or animal used to move logs or trees to landing.
SKIDDING: The yarding of trees or logs by pulling or towing them across the ground.
SKYBOUND: A tree that fails to fall after being faced and backcut. Generally a result of picking the wrong lean.
SKYLINE: The line suspended between two points on which a block or carriage travels.
SLACKLINE: A form of skyline where the skyline cable is spooled on a donkey drum and can be raised or lowered.
SLACKPULLER: Any weight or mechanical device used to increase the movement of a line when its own weight is inadequate.
SLABBING: Generally a result of improper technique and/or sequence of bucking cuts which result in a lateral split of a log.
SLIPSHOD: Poor procedure or technique of falling or bucking.
SLOPE (Grade): The increase or decrease in altitude over a horizontal distance expressed as a percentage. For example, a change of altitude of 20 feet (6 m) over a horizontal distance of 100 feet (30 m) is expressed as a 20 percent slope.
SLOPING FACE CUT: The second of the two cuts required to face or undercut a tree. It must be angled sufficiently to allow a wide mouthed face opening.
SNAG: Any standing dead tree or portion thereof.
SNAG: A dead or dying tree that is still standing. Snags must be felled prior to beginning work on an area. Special procedure must be observed when falling snags.
SNAP TOP: Broken off top of a tree as a result of wind and/or rot.
SNIPE OR TRIM: Allowance for falling and bucking cuts; extra length added to regular log length.
SPAR/SPAR TREE: A device rigged for highlead, skyline or slackline yarding.
SPEEDER: A small self-powered vehicle that runs on a railroad track.
SPIKE TOP: A live tree that has a dead barkless top.
SPIKED TOP: When the top of a tree dies and loses its branches, leaving a tall, dry spike of dead wood. Usually occurs in cedar.
SPRING BOARD: Metal-toed plank used to elevate the faller above a large swelled butt or to allow him to fall on extremely steep ground. A notch is sawn into the side of the tree and spring board toe inserted into it. The faller stands on this plank to face and backcut.
SPRING POLE: A tree, segment of a tree, limb, or sapling that is under stress or tension due to the pressure or weight of another object.
SQUARE LEAD: The angle of 90 degrees.
SQUIRREL: A weight used to swing a boom when the power unit does not have enough drums to do it mechanically.
SQUIRREL TREE: A topped tree, guyed if necessary, near the spar tree in which the counter balance (squirrel) of a tree rigged boom is hung.
STAGGED OR BOBBED PANTS: Pants whose cuffs are removed and length shortened to facilitate unrestricted movement for working and escaping.
STAGGED TROUSERS: The faller's trousers are maintained without cuffs and are shortened to prevent tripping hazards.
STEP DUTCHMAN: An intentional alteration of standard falling technique to solve problems of maintaining a lead. The Step Dutchman is put in play by sawing off the lean side holding wood and placement of a step (rock, wood) into the face to force the tree to pivot to the desired direction.
STIFF BOOM: Two or more boom sticks wrapped together on which boom persons walk or work.
STINGER: Metal nail-like affair attached to the end of a logger's measuring tape. After inserted, it will secure one end of the tape allowing the faller to proceed down the tree to accurately determine the desired length of the log.
STRAP: Any short piece of line with an eye or "D" in each end.
STRAWLINE: A small line used for miscellaneous purposes.
STRIP OR QUARTER: Designated area of trees established by natural boundaries (roads, streams, etc.), or ribbons within which fallers are assigned.
STRIP LAYOUT: Refers to the best method of falling the trees of an area in relation to themselves and the terrain. Strip layout is the faller's first consideration in the falling sequence.
STUB: A standing dead tree characterized by a broken off top and very few or no remaining branches.
STUMP SHOT: Two inches or more height difference between the horizontal cut of the face and the backcut. The difference in height establishes an anti-kick step that will prevent a tree from jumping back over the stump toward the faller.
SWAMPING: The falling or cutting of brush around or along a specified place.
SWAMPOUT: Refers to the clearing away from the base of a tree and bucking area loose debris that could hamper footing, use of tools, and/or escaping. Preparing the working and escaping area is an essential part of the falling procedure.
SWIFTER: A piece of equipment used to tie the side sticks of a log raft together to keep the raft from spreading.
SWING CUT: A back cut in which the holding wood on one side is cut through.
SWING DUTCHMAN: A special falling technique which, when used properly, allows the faller to minimize breakage and maintain a lead. As with the Step Dutchman, this alteration of falling technique caused the tree to swing. The swing results because the holding wood on the lean side has been severed. The swing Dutchman does not utilize a step and will not pivot a tree as much as will the Step Dutchman.
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