Hickory (Carya spp.) -
- Tan, 5-sided or angled pith.
- Variable bark not helpful except for loose, flaky shagbark hickory.
- Nuts and husks under tree.
- Stout twigs with large terminal bud.
- Large heart-shaped to 3-lobed leaf scar.
- Bark is furrowed and dark in black walnut (lighter in butternut).
- Leaf scars like upside down shamrock with 5 or 7 bundle scars.
- Walnuts and husks under tree.
- Chambered pith.
- Globose nut.
- 5-sided pith.
- Variable bark not very helpful.
- Clustered buds at tip of twig.
- Persistent leaves on live and water oak.
- Slightly raised, semi-circular leaf scars.
- Numerous bundle scars.
- Acorns persistent on twigs or dropped under the tree.
- "Duck bill" or "mitten" looking buds.
- Large stipule scars encircling the twig.
- Cone-like aggregate of samaras.
- Buds "fuzzy".
- Unique "inverted V" on limb to trunk connection.
- Gray-green bark with light furrows.
- Pith often divided by partitions of stone cells.
- Often confused with beech, hophornbeam and ironwood.
- Has short scaled buds (vs. long scaled buds on beech).
- Mostly smooth bark but peeling in papery layers.
- Male and female parts on same tree (male long catkins, female short cones).
- Yellow birch has wintergreen tasting twig.
- River birch has salmon colored exfoliating bark.
- Paper (canoe) birch has creamy white thin bark separating into papery strips.
- Often confused with birch, hophornbeam and ironwood.
- Has long narrow scaled buds (vs. short scaled buds on birch).
- Has grey, smooth bark and often called the "initial tree".
- Has no catkins.
- Often root suckers surround old trees.
- Has spiny-husked nuts.
- "Human-like" looking roots on older trees.
- Has brown irregular bark that is tinged with red.
- Has zig-zag twigs.
- Bark acts like cork when pressed with finger nail (bounces back).
- Buds off center over the leaf scar.
- Favorite Baltimore oriole nesting tree.
- Bundle scars in three clusters.
- Terminal bud is absent.
- Has narrow corky and light, horizontal lenticels on young bark.
- Bark breaks into dark plates and raised edges on older wood described as "burnt cornflakes".
- Twig has "bitter almond" taste.
- Bark is dark gey but both smooth and scaly with reddish-brown inner bark.
- Corky outgrowth on twig bark.
- Spiny "gumballs" on long stalk.
- Green/orange-brown shiny bud scales.
- Terminal bud sticky.
- Zig-zag stout twigs.
- Mottled "camouflage" exfoliating (peeling) bark (green, white, tan).
- Spherical multiple achenes with long stalks (fruit balls).
- leaf scar nearly surrounds the bud.
- Numerous raised bundle scars.
- Buds are large and cone-shaped.
...Josh Sayer's Winter Trees and Shrubs - Pignut Hickory Example
...The Common Hickories
Black Walnut (Juglans spp.) -
...Josh Sayer's Winter Trees and Shrubs - Black Walnut Example
Oak (Quercus spp.) -
...Josh Sayer's Winter Trees and Shrubs - Red Oak Example
...The Common Oaks
Yellow Poplar (Lireodendron tulipifera.) -
...Josh Sayer's Winter Trees and Shrubs - Yellow Poplar Example
Birch (Betula Spp.) -
...Josh Sayer's Winter Trees and Shrubs - Paper Birch Example
Beech (Fagus Spp.) -
...Josh Sayer's Winter Trees and Shrubs - American Beech Example
Elm (Ulmus Spp.) -
...Josh Sayer's Winter Trees and Shrubs - American Elm Example
...The Common Elms
Cherry (Prunus Spp.) -
...Josh Sayer's Winter Trees and Shrubs - Black Cherry Example
Sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua.) -
Sycamore (Platanus occidentalis.) -
...Josh Sayer's Winter Trees and Shrubs - Sycamore Example