The University of Tennessee recommends these steps for prevention of tree root damage:
If you have to plant a tree, choose small, slow-growing species, varieties or cultivars with less aggressive root systems and to replace them before they get too large for their planting area. There are no safe trees, but by using small, slower-growing trees, sewer lines should be safer from the intrusion of tree roots.
UT also recommends these common trees as planting options near water and sewer lines: Amur maple, Japanese maple, dogwood, redbud, and fringetree.
There are some options if you already have tree root damage to your lines. There are products that contain slow-release chemicals that prevent root growth. Other root barriers can include very compact layers of soil; chemical layers such as sulfur, sodium, zinc, borate, salt or herbicides; air gaps using large stones; and solid barriers like plastic, metal and wood. Each of these barriers can be effective in the short term, but long-term results are difficult to guarantee and can significantly harm the tree. Seek professional advice when using these options.